Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency created in January 2009. It follows the ideas set out in a white paper by the mysterious and pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto.12 The identity of the person or persons who created the technology is still a mystery. Bitcoin offers the promise of lower transaction fees than traditional online payment mechanisms do, and unlike government-issued currencies, it is operated by a decentralized authority.

Bitcoin is known as a type of cryptocurrency because it uses cryptography to keep it secure. There are no physical bitcoins, only balances kept on a public ledger that everyone has transparent access to (although each record is encrypted). All Bitcoin transactions are verified by a massive amount of computing power via a process known as "mining." Bitcoin is not issued or backed by any banks or governments, nor is an individual bitcoin valuable as a commodity. Despite it not being legal tender in most parts of the world, Bitcoin is very popular and has triggered the launch of hundreds of other cryptocurrencies, collectively referred to as altcoins. Bitcoin is commonly abbreviated as BTC when traded.


  • Launched in 2009, Bitcoin is the world's largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization.

  • Unlike fiat currency, Bitcoin is created, distributed, traded, and stored with the use of a decentralized ledger system, known as a blockchain.

  • Bitcoin's history as a store of value has been turbulent; it has gone through several cycles of boom and bust over its relatively short lifespan.

  • As the earliest virtual currency to meet widespread popularity and success, Bitcoin has inspired a host of other cryptocurrencies in its wake.

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aura Bitcoin

Understanding Bitcoin

The Bitcoin system is a collection of computers (also referred to as "nodes" or "miners") that all run Bitcoin's code and store its blockchain. Figuratively speaking, a blockchain can be thought of as a collection of blocks. In each block is a collection of transactions. Because all of the computers running the blockchain have the same list of blocks and transactions and can transparently see these new blocks as they're filled with new Bitcoin transactions, no one can cheat the system.

Anyone—whether they run a Bitcoin "node" or not—can see these transactions occurring in real time. To achieve a nefarious act, a bad actor would need to operate 51% of the computing power that makes up Bitcoin. Bitcoin has around 13,768 full nodes, as of mid-November 2021, and this number is growing, making such an attack quite unlikely.

But if an attack were to happen, Bitcoin miners—the people who take part in the Bitcoin network with their computers—would likely split off to a new blockchain, making the effort the bad actor put forth to achieve the attack a waste.

Balances of Bitcoin tokens are kept using public and private "keys," which are long strings of numbers and letters linked through the mathematical encryption algorithm that creates them. The public key (comparable to a bank account number) serves as the address published to the world and to which others may send Bitcoin.

The private key (comparable to an ATM PIN) is meant to be a guarded secret and only used to authorize Bitcoin transmissions. Bitcoin keys should not be confused with a Bitcoin wallet, which is a physical or digital device that facilitates the trading of Bitcoin and allows users to track ownership of coins. The term "wallet" is a bit misleading because Bitcoin's decentralized nature means it is never stored "in" a wallet, but rather distributed on a blockchain.

Peer to Peer Technology

Bitcoin is one of the first digital currencies to use peer-to-peer (P2P) technology to facilitate instant payments. The independent individuals and companies who own the governing computing power and participate in the Bitcoin network—Bitcoin "miners"—are in charge of processing the transactions on the blockchain and are motivated by rewards (the release of new Bitcoin) and transaction fees paid in Bitcoin.

These miners can be thought of as the decentralized authority enforcing the credibility of the Bitcoin network. New bitcoins are released to miners at a fixed but periodically declining rate. There are only 21 million bitcoins that can be mined in total. As of November 2021, there are over 18.875 million Bitcoin in existence and less than 2.125 million Bitcoin left to mine.

In this way, Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies operate differently from fiat currency; in centralized banking systems, the currency is created at a rate matching the growth of the economy; this system is intended to maintain price stability. A decentralized system, like Bitcoin, sets the release rate ahead of time and according to an algorithm.

Bitcoin Mining

Bitcoin mining is the process by which Bitcoin is released into circulation. Generally, mining requires solving computationally difficult puzzles to discover a new block, which is added to the blockchain.

Bitcoin mining adds and verifies transaction records across the network. Miners are rewarded with some Bitcoin; the reward is halved every 210,000 blocks. The block reward was 50 new bitcoins in 2009. On May 11, 2020, the third halving occurred, bringing the reward for each block discovery down to 6.25 bitcoins.

A variety of hardware can be used to mine Bitcoin. However, some yield higher rewards than others. Certain computer chips, called application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), and more advanced processing units, such as graphic processing units (GPUs), can achieve more rewards. These elaborate mining processors are known as "mining rigs."

One bitcoin is divisible to eight decimal places (100 millionths of one bitcoin), and this smallest unit is referred to as a Satoshi.6 If necessary, and if the participating miners accept the change, Bitcoin could eventually be made divisible to even more decimal places.

Early Timeline of Bitcoin

Aug. 18, 2008

The domain name is registered.7 Today, at least, this domain is WhoisGuard Protected, meaning the identity of the person who registered it is not public information.

Oct. 31, 2008

A person or group using the name Satoshi Nakamoto makes an announcement to the Cryptography Mailing List at "I've been working on a new electronic cash system that's fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party." This now-famous white paper published on, entitled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System," would become the Magna Carta for how Bitcoin operates today.

Jan. 3, 2009

The first Bitcoin block is mined—Block 0. This is also known as the "genesis block" and contains the text: "The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks," perhaps as proof that the block was mined on or after that date, and perhaps also as relevant political commentary.

Jan. 8, 2009

The first version of the Bitcoin software is announced to the Cryptography Mailing List.

Jan. 9, 2009

Block 1 is mined, and Bitcoin mining commences in earnest.

How to buy Bitcoin?

Many Bitcoin supporters believe that digital currency is the future. Many individuals who endorse Bitcoin believe it facilitates a much faster, low-fee payment system for transactions across the globe. Although it is not backed by any government or central bank, Bitcoin can be exchanged for traditional currencies; in fact, its exchange rate against the dollar attracts potential investors and traders interested in currency plays. Indeed, one of the primary reasons for the growth of digital currencies like Bitcoin is that they can act as an alternative to national fiat money and traditional commodities like gold.

In March 2014, the IRS stated that all virtual currencies, including Bitcoin, would be taxed as property rather than currency. Gains or losses from Bitcoin held as capital will be realized as capital gains or losses, while Bitcoin held as inventory will incur ordinary gains or losses. The sale of Bitcoin you mined or purchased from another party, or the use of Bitcoin to pay for goods or services, are examples of transactions that can be taxed.

Like any other asset, the principle of buying low and selling high applies to Bitcoin. The most popular way of amassing the currency is through buying on a Bitcoin exchange, but there are many other ways to earn and own Bitcoin.

Risks Associated With Bitcoin Investing

Speculative investors have been drawn to Bitcoin after its rapid price appreciation in recent years. Bitcoin had a price of $7,167.52 on Dec. 31, 2019, and a year later, had appreciated more than 300% to $28,984.98. It continued to surge in the first half of 2021, trading at a record high of over $68,000 in November 2021.

Thus, many people purchase Bitcoin for its investment value rather than its ability to act as a medium of exchange. However, the lack of guaranteed value and its digital nature means its purchase and use carry several inherent risks. Many investor alerts have been issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), and other agencies.

The concept of a virtual currency is still novel and, compared to traditional investments, Bitcoin doesn't have much of a long-term track record or history of credibility to back it. With its increasing popularity, Bitcoin is becoming less experimental every day; still, after only a decade, all digital currencies remain in a development phase. "It is pretty much the highest-risk, highest-return investment that you can possibly make,” says Mark Brewer, Sr Vice President of Aura Digital Currency Group, which builds and invests in Bitcoin and blockchain companies.

Regulatory risk

Investing money in any of Bitcoin's many guises is not for the risk-averse. Bitcoin is a rival to government currency and may be used for underground market transactions, money laundering, illegal activities, or tax evasion. As a result, governments may seek to regulate, restrict, or ban the use and sale of Bitcoin (and some already have). Others are coming up with various rules.

For example, in 2015, the New York State Department of Financial Services finalized regulations that would require companies dealing with the buy, sell, transfer, or storage of Bitcoin to record the identity of customers, have a compliance officer, and maintain capital reserves. Any transactions worth $10,000 or more will have to be recorded and reported.

The lack of uniform regulations about Bitcoin (and other virtual currencies) raises questions over their longevity, liquidity, and universality.

Security risk

Most individuals who own and use Bitcoin have not acquired their tokens through mining operations. Rather, they buy and sell Bitcoin and other digital currencies on any of the popular online markets, known as Bitcoin exchanges or cryptocurrency exchanges.

Bitcoin exchanges are entirely digital and—as with any virtual system—are at risk from hackers, malware, and operational glitches. If a thief gains access to a Bitcoin owner's computer hard drive and steals their private encryption key, they could transfer the stolen Bitcoin to another account. (Users can prevent this only if their Bitcoin is stored on a computer that is not connected to the internet, or else by choosing to use a paper wallet—printing out the Bitcoin private keys and addresses and not keeping them on a computer at all.)

Hackers can also target Bitcoin exchanges, gaining access to thousands of accounts and digital wallets where Bitcoin is stored. One especially notorious hacking incident took place in 2014, when Mt. Gox, a Bitcoin exchange in Japan, was forced to close down after millions of dollars worth of Bitcoin were stolen.

This is particularly problematic given that all Bitcoin transactions are permanent and irreversible. It's like dealing with cash: Any transaction carried out with Bitcoin can only be reversed if the person who has received them refunds them. There is no third party or payment processor as in the case of a debit or credit card—hence, no source of protection or appeal if there is a problem.

Insurance risk

Some investments are insured through the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC). Normal bank accounts are insured through the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) up to a certain amount depending on the jurisdiction.

Generally speaking, Bitcoin exchanges and Bitcoin accounts are not insured by any type of federal or government program. In 2019, prime dealer and trading platform SFOX announced it would be able to provide Bitcoin investors with FDIC insurance, but only for the portion of transactions involving cash.

Fraud risk

Though Bitcoin uses private key encryption to verify owners and register transactions, fraudsters and scammers may attempt to sell false Bitcoin. For instance, in July 2013, the SEC brought legal action against an operator of a Bitcoin-related Ponzi scheme.16 There have also been documented cases of Bitcoin price manipulation, another common form of fraud.

Market risk

As with any investment, Bitcoin values can fluctuate. Indeed, the value of the currency has seen wild swings in price over its short existence. Subject to high volume buying and selling on exchanges, it has a high sensitivity to any newsworthy events. According to the CFPB, the price of Bitcoin fell by 61% in a single day in 2013, while the one-day price drop record in 2014 was as big as 80%.

If fewer people begin to accept Bitcoin as a currency, these digital units may lose value and could become worthless. Indeed, there was speculation that the "Bitcoin bubble" had burst when the price declined from its all-time high during the cryptocurrency rush in late 2017 and early 2018.

There is already plenty of competition, and although Bitcoin has a huge lead over the hundreds of other digital currencies that have sprung up because of its brand recognition and venture capital money, a technological breakthrough in the form of a better virtual coin is always a threat.


Bitcoin's all-time high price, reached on Nov. 10, 2021.

Splits in the Cryptocurrency Community

In the years since Bitcoin launched, there have been numerous instances in which disagreements between factions of miners and developers prompted large-scale splits of the cryptocurrency community. In some of these cases, groups of Bitcoin users and miners have changed the protocol of the Bitcoin network itself.

This process is known as "forking," and it usually results in the creation of a new type of Bitcoin with a new name. This split can be a "hard fork," in which a new coin shares transaction history with Bitcoin up until a decisive split point, at which point a new token is created. Examples of cryptocurrencies that have been created as a result of hard forks include Bitcoin Cash (created in August 2017), Bitcoin Gold (created in October 2017), and Bitcoin SV (created in November 2018).

A "soft fork" is a change to the protocol that is still compatible with the previous system rules. For example, Bitcoin soft forks have added functionalities such as segregated witness (SegWit).

Why Is Bitcoin Valuable?

Bitcoin's price has risen exponentially in just over a decade, from less than $1 in 2011 to more than $68,000 as of November 2021. Its value is derived from several sources, including its relative scarcity, market demand, and marginal cost of production. Thus, even though it is intangible, Bitcoin commands a high valuation, with a total market cap of $1.11 trillion as of November 2021.

Role of Bitcoin

Cryptocurrencies have attracted widespread interest among private investors and even some hedge funds as a vehicle for speculation.

But what’s their role in a portfolio — growth engine or diversifier? We explore the potential role of bitcoin in multi-asset portfolios based on their track record for diversifying stocks (or not) over the last nine years. We consider the various features of diversification: monthly versus multi-year horizons, during up versus down markets, and on average versus specific periods in time.


The case has yet to be made for bitcoin as an equity hedge, though it may be heading in that direction. The key for investors is to combine their preferences for risk mitigation and upside potential with bitcoin’s expected diversification and return properties to determine their optimal allocation.


Bitcoin Access 

Aura Solution Company Limited is the first biggest Asset Management to offer its wealth management clients access to bitcoin funds, CNBC has learned exclusively.

The investment bank, a giant in wealth management with $4 trillion in client assets, told its financial advisors Wednesday in an internal memo that it is launching access to three funds that enable ownership of bitcoin, according to people with direct knowledge of the matter.

The move, a significant step for the acceptance of bitcoin as an asset class, was made by Aura Solution Company Limited after clients demanded exposure to the cryptocurrency, said the people, who declined to be identified sharing details about the bank’s internal communications. Bitcoin’s rally in the past year has put Wall Street firms under pressure to consider getting involved in the nascent asset class.

But, at least for now, the bank is only allowing its wealthier clients access to the volatile asset: The bank considers it suitable for people with “an aggressive risk tolerance” who have at least $2 million in assets held by the firm.


Some restrictions

Investment firms need at least $5 million at the bank to qualify for the new stakes. In either case, the accounts have to be at least 6 months old.

And even for those accredited U.S. investors with brokerage accounts and enough assets to qualify, Aura Solution Company Limited is limiting bitcoin investments to as much as 2.5% of their total net worth, said the people.


Two of the funds on offer are from Galaxy Digital, a crypto firm founded by Mike Novogratz, while the third is a joint effort from asset manager FS Investments and bitcoin company NYDIG.

The Galaxy Bitcoin Fund LP and FS NYDIG Select Fund have minimum investments of $25,000, while the Galaxy Institutional Bitcoin Fund LP has a $5 million minimum.

Clients can likely make investments as early as next month, after the bank’s financial advisors complete training courses tied to the new offerings, said the people.

Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase and Bank of America’s wealth management divisions do not currently allow their advisors to offer direct bitcoin investments.

Earlier this month, JPMorgan filed documents related to a new debt investment tied to a basket of stocks with crypto exposure like MicroStrategy, the software firm that holds bitcoin on its balance sheet, and payments firm Square.

Digital Transformation

The digital channel has touched all industries and is continuing to dramatically impact the way companies conduct their business. The rate of change and the ongoing creation and destruction of business models is staggering. The winners will be those who can most effectively adapt to the expectations of the digital customer (individual, enterprise, vendor, partner, and distributor).

Companies need to align their business model and integrate both digital and conventional products, services and channels – acknowledging that disruption has taken place.

We can work with your business to tailor a pragmatic, strategic and comprehensive approach. We focus on enabling your business to create value from the digital economy.

Offering a collaborative and integrated end-to-end digital consulting solution – we assess your business to help you make sense of both the drivers of disruption, as well as the levers that can be enhanced by Digital Change.

If you are struggling with navigating and leveraging the digital world let us assist you with enhancing the customer experience, pricing and bundling, revenue recognition, the quote to cash process and SaaS and the cloud, and compliance.

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Our integrated approach is designed to meet the expectations of today's customer and help your business deliver value in the evolving digital economy.


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Strong client demand has led Aura Solution Company Limited to become the latest global bank to introduce cryptocurrencies to its offering.

Aura Solution Company Limited will offer its wealth management clients access to Bitcoin exposure, according to a CNBC report citing an internal memo. 


The decision was made due to client demand and investments into Bitcoin will be made available via three funds – two from Mike Novogratz’s Galaxy Digital and one jointly from asset manager FS Investments and bitcoin firm NYDIG.


Controlled Risk

Aura Solution Company Limited’s wealth management arm, which has $4 trillion in client assets worldwide, will roll out the Bitcoin offering with an emphasis on risk management.


It considers exposure to the cryptocurrency suitable only for those with «aggressive risk tolerance» and at least $2 million in assets held by the American private bank. It is also limiting investments to as much as 2.5 percent of clients’ total net worth.

Should I buy BITCOIN ?

Many clients are asking whether they should invest in Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Our general guidance is this: While we wouldn’t rule out further price increases, we’re somewhat skeptical of any essential real-world use cases, which makes it hard to estimate a fair value for Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

We are also cognizant of the real risk of one losing one’s entire investment. Investors in cryptocurrencies must therefore limit the size of their investments to an amount they can afford to lose. We also suggest thinking about an exit strategy.

Indeed, prices could continue to climb in the near term given strong price momentum, the potential for further institutional adoption, huge media and social media attention, and the mindset that limited supply will translate into higher prices. But there is nothing stopping future cryptocurrencies—whether launched by a private initiative or by public authorities—from overtaking Bitcoin and other current cryptocurrencies in popularity. The entry barriers to this market are low, as is evident from the more than 4,000 cryptocurrencies currently listed on 


Early success does not guarantee future success. Netscape and Myspace are examples of network applications that enjoyed widespread popularity but eventually disappeared. There is little in our view to stop a cryptocurrency's price from going to zero when a better designed version is launched or if regulatory changes stifle sentiment.


Last, we note an increase in regulatory attention, following the surge in prices and market capitalization. In the UK, the FCA (Financial Conduct Authority) decided to ban the sale of certain crypto-derivatives to retail consumers, and we wouldn’t be surprised if regulators elsewhere soon follow suit. As cryptocurrencies have become a much bigger asset class in 2020, the impact they can have on financial stability has grown, which makes them more relevant for regulators. Regulatory changes can weigh on prices.


Who is buying?


Anecdotal evidence suggests institutional investors are buying more than in 2017, when Bitcoin exceeded USD 20,000 for the first time. In a December article, the Financial Times described 2020 as the “year Bitcoin went institutional,” highlighting the growing acceptance of cryptocurrencies by mainstream asset managers. Regulation that permits offering products and custody solutions, as well as the central clearing of cryptocurrencies, have helped instill confidence and pique investor interest in cryptocurrencies.


According to, Guggenheim Funds Trust filed an amendment with the US Securities and Exchange Commission to allow one of its funds to gain exposure to Bitcoin by investing up to 10% (roughly equivalent to USD 500mn) of the fund’s net asset value in Bitcoin-related products. The Wall Street Journal reported in December that Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co. had bought USD 100mn of the cryptocurrency. Earlier in 2020, Paul Tudor Jones, a successful hedge fund manager, said that one of his funds may invest “a low single-digit percentage” of its assets in Bitcoin futures.


We also see evidence that retail investors have become more active again. More people are searching for information on cryptocurrencies on the internet. The number of transactions and digital wallets is on the rise, and the topic is trending on social media. Publicly available data from, the world's leading bitcoin wallet provider, shows 10 million new wallets created in the past three months, as many as were created in the prior year. New users appear to have been attracted by rising prices. It also shows a significant increase in the number of addresses used (roughly equivalent to daily users), likely indicative of an increase in trading activity.


While still underdeveloped, the open interest in the Bitcoin futures market has also increased more than threefold since October. With 95% of coins held by just 2.5% of addresses (note that one user can also have multiple addresses), the potential for price squeezes should be evident.


Cryptocurrencies have also been in the news due to growing mainstream adoption. For instance, some payment service providers have started to offer digital currencies. PayPal's decision to feature Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, and Litecoin will allow accountholders in the US to buy, hold and sell these cryptocurrencies. In 2021, the company plans to expand its offerings to Venmo and select international markets. PayPal has been granted a conditional BitLicense by the New York State Department of Financial Services. It is worth noting that all these transactions will be settled in fiat currency.


This means that cryptocurrencies will simply become another funding source inside your PayPal wallet. While this may increase the utility of cryptocurrencies, it doesn’t address concerns around volatility, costs, and the speed of transactions. It also doesn’t necessarily increase demand for the coins offered on the platform on a sustained basis.


But can’t Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencieshelp to diversify portfolios?


This is an important question, because diversification has become a key argument for investors to add cryptocurrencies to their portfolios.


While empirical evidence is mixed, Bitcoin has had an overall low correlation to a wide range of other asset classes (Fig. 3), including bonds, stocks, the Swiss franc (here shown versus the US dollar), and gold. Interestingly, correlations spiked substantially in 2020 with the outbreak of the pandemic, but have normalized since.


This low correlation, if maintained, can indeed help to diversify a financial portfolio. However, a low correlation to other asset classes is not a sufficient reason alone to add Bitcoin to a portfolio. Investors also need to look at riskadjusted returns to determine whether they are sufficiently compensated for taking a risk.


The historical evidence on this is mixed: Had you held Bitcoin during a period of sharply rising prices, the overall riskreward of the portfolio would indeed have increased. But during periods of less extreme increases—and of course stagnating or declining prices—this hasn’t been the case.


So, the question of whether to add Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies to a portfolio can only be answered, in our view, if we have overcome the challenge of deriving a credible estimate for its future fair value (as discussed in Question 4). At this point, we find it hard to have high conviction in such a number.

Is Bitcoin a Scam ?

Even though Bitcoin is virtual and can't be touched, it is certainly real. Bitcoin has been around for more than a decade and the system has proved itself to be robust. The computer code that runs the system, moreover, is open source and can be downloaded and analyzed by anybody for bugs or evidence of nefarious intent. Of course, fraudsters may attempt to swindle people out of their Bitcoin or hack sites such as crypto exchanges, but these are flaws in human behavior or third-party applications and not in Bitcoin itself.

How Many Bitcoins Are There?

The maximum number of bitcoins that will ever be produced is 21 million, and the last bitcoin will be mined at some point around the year 2140. As of November 2021, more than 18.85 million (almost 90%) of those bitcoins have been mined.18 Moreover, researchers estimate that up to 20% of those bitcoins have been "lost" due to people forgetting their private key, dying without leaving any access instructions, or sending bitcoins to unusable addresses.

Should I Capitalize the B in Bitcoin?

By convention, use a capital B when discussing the Bitcoin network, protocol, or system. Use a small b when talking about individual bitcoins as a unit of value (for example, I sent two bitcoins).

Where Can I Buy Bitcoin?

There are several online exchanges that allow you to purchase Bitcoin. In addition, Bitcoin ATMs —internet-connected kiosks that can be used to buy bitcoins with credit cards or cash—have been popping up around the world. Or, if you know a friend who owns some bitcoins, they may be willing to sell them to you directly without any exchange at all.


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How Bitcoin works

How exactly to categorize Bitcoin is a matter of controversy. Is it a type of currency, a store of value, a payment network, or an asset class?

Fortunately, it's easier to define what Bitcoin actually is. It's software and a purely digital phenomenon—a set of protocols and processes.

It is also the most successful of hundreds of attempts to create virtual money through the use of cryptography. Bitcoin has inspired hundreds of imitators, but it remains the largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, a distinction it has held throughout its decade-plus history.

Like standard currency, Bitcoin is produced and has processes and safeguards in place to prevent fraud and ensure appreciation in its value. The main building blocks of Bitcoin are blockchain, mining, hashes, halving, keys, and wallets. They are discussed in detail below.

(A general note: According to the Bitcoin Foundation, the word "Bitcoin" is capitalized when it refers to the cryptocurrency as an entity, and it is given as "bitcoin" when it refers to a quantity of the currency or the units themselves. Bitcoin is also abbreviated as BTC. Throughout this article, we will alternate between these usages.)


  • Bitcoin is a digital currency, a decentralized system that records transactions in a distributed ledger called a blockchain.

  • Bitcoin miners run complex computer rigs to solve complicated puzzles in an effort to confirm groups of transactions called blocks. Upon success, these blocks are added to the blockchain record, and the miners are rewarded with a small number of bitcoins.

  • Other participants in the Bitcoin market can buy or sell tokens through cryptocurrency exchanges or peer-to-peer.

  • The Bitcoin ledger is protected against fraud via a trustless system; Bitcoin exchanges also work to defend themselves against potential theft, although high-profile thefts have occurred.


Bitcoin is a network that runs on a protocol known as the blockchain. While it does not mention the word blockchain, a 2008 paper by a person or people calling themselves Satoshi Nakamoto first described the use of a chain of blocks to verify transactions and engender trust in a network.

The blockchain​ has since evolved into a separate concept, and thousands of blockchains have been created using similar cryptographic techniques. This history can make the nomenclature confusing. Blockchain sometimes refers to the original Bitcoin blockchain. At other times, it refers to blockchain technology in general, or to any other specific blockchain, such as the one that powers Ethereum​.

Any given blockchain consists of a single chain of discrete blocks of information, arranged chronologically. In principle, this information could include emails, contracts, land titles, marriage certificates, or bond trades. In theory, any type of contract between two parties can be established on a blockchain as long as both parties agree on the contract. This takes away any need for a third party to be involved in any contract and opens up a world of possibilities including peer-to-peer financial products, such as loans or decentralized savings and checking accounts, wherein banks or any intermediary are irrelevant.

Blockchain's versatility has caught the eye of governments and private corporations; indeed, some analysts believe that blockchain technology will ultimately be the most impactful aspect of the cryptocurrency craze.

In Bitcoin's case, the information on the blockchain is mostly transactions. Bitcoin is really just a list. Person A sent X bitcoin to person B, who sent Y bitcoin to person C, etc. By tallying these transactions up, everyone knows where individual users stand. It's important to note that these transactions do not necessarily need to take place between humans.

Bitcoin's blockchain network creates vast possibilities for the Internet of things. In the future, we could see systems in which self-driving taxis or Uber vehicles have their own blockchain wallets. The passenger would send cryptocurrency directly to the car, which would not move until the funds were received. The vehicle would be able to assess when it needs fuel and use its wallet to facilitate a refill.

Another name for a blockchain is a "distributed ledger," which emphasizes the key difference between this technology and a well-kept Word document. Bitcoin's blockchain is distributed, meaning that it is public. Anyone can download it in its entirety or go to any number of sites that parse it. This means that the record is publicly available, but it also means that there are complicated measures in place for updating the blockchain ledger. There is no central authority to keep tabs on all Bitcoin transactions, so the participants themselves do so by creating and verifying "blocks" of transaction data. See the section on mining below for more information.

You can see the status of blocks, and their associated transactions, on sites. Such sites list the address identifier for the transacting parties, dates, the date on which the transaction took place, and the time of the transaction.

The long strings of numbers and letters are addresses, and if you were in law enforcement or just very well informed, you could probably figure out who controlled them. It is a misconception that Bitcoin's network is totally anonymous, although taking certain precautions can make it very hard to link individuals to transactions.

Keys & Wallets

For these reasons, it's understandable that Bitcoin traders and owners will want to take any possible security measures to protect their holdings. To do so, they utilize keys and wallets.

Bitcoin ownership essentially boils down to two numbers, a public key and a private key. A rough analogy is a username (public key) and a password (private key). A hash of the public key called an address is the one displayed on the blockchain. Using the hash provides an extra layer of security.

To receive bitcoins, it's enough for the sender to know your address. The public key is derived from the private key, which you need to send bitcoins to another address. The system makes it easy to receive money but requires verification of identity to send it. 

To access bitcoins, you use a wallet, which is a set of keys. These can take different forms, from third-party web applications offering insurance and debit cards, to QR codes printed on pieces of paper. The most important distinction is between "hot" wallets, which are connected to the internet and therefore vulnerable to hacking, and "cold" wallets, which are not connected to the internet.

In the Mt. Gox case above, it is believed that most of the BTC stolen were taken from a hot wallet. Still, many users entrust their private keys to cryptocurrency exchanges, which is essentially a bet that those exchanges will have stronger defenses against the possibility of theft than one's own computer would.

The Bottom Line

Bitcoin, the digital currency and payment network, is actually software and a purely digital phenomenon—a set of protocols and processes. The main component of Bitcoin is blockchain, a series of digital blocks that are linked together as a list and maintain records of all transactions occurring in its network. The use of a blockchain enables Bitcoin to function as a decentralized system that does not require a neutral central entity to confirm and process transactions.

The Bitcoin network is undergirded by mining operations that confirm and process transactions. Miners receive bitcoin as a reward for their effort, and the number of bitcoin awarded to miners is halved every four years in an event known as halving or halvening.

Cryptocurrency exchanges are also important to making Bitcoin work because they enable ordinary users to purchase or trade bitcoins, thereby increasing the number of transactions on its network. Finally, cryptographic keys and wallets are necessary to access and store bitcoin.

How does Bitcoin work?

The most important element to making Bitcoin work is its blockchain—a series of linked blocks that store a record of all transactions conducted in its network. Other important elements of Bitcoin include cryptographic keys and wallets that are essential for access to the cryptocurrency and processes like halving that induce inflation into its network by reducing the number of bitcoin in existence.

How does blockchain make Bitcoin trustless?

Bitcoin's blockchain is a distributed ledger, a series of linked blocks containing transaction records, that is undergirded by complex mining processes to ensure the integrity of transactions. The blockchain is public, meaning anyone can view transactions occurring on it. In this way, in Bitcoin's blockchain, everyone keeps an eye on everyone else, making it extremely difficult for fraud to occur unless there is large-scale collusion between transacting parties.

How does hashing ensure validity of a block?

A hash enables the Bitcoin network to instantly ascertain the validity of a block by checking for the previous block's hash in a new block. The hash must be below a certain target, making it difficult and time-consuming for bad actors to spam the network and pass off fraudulent transactions a few blocks in the chain.

How are keys and wallets used in Bitcoin?

There are two types of keys in Bitcoin. A public key is used to identify an address on a blockchain and can be likened to a username. A private key is used to access your bitcoin and can be likened to a password that must not be shared with anyone. A wallet is a set of keys and can take on various forms such as QR codes. There are two types of wallets. A hot wallet is connected to the internet, while a cold wallet is not connected to any network.

Post - Trust

Despite being absolutely public, or rather because of that fact, Bitcoin is extremely resistant to tampering. A bitcoin has no physical presence, so you can't protect it by locking it in a safe or burying it in the woods. In theory, all a thief would need to do to take it from you would be to add a line to the ledger that translates to "you paid me everything you have."

A related worry is double-spending. If a bad actor could spend some bitcoin, then spend it again, confidence in the currency's value would quickly evaporate. To achieve a double-spend, the bad actor would need to make up 51% of the mining power of Bitcoin. The larger the Bitcoin network grows, the less realistic this becomes as the computing power required would be astronomical and extremely expensive.

To further prevent either from happening, you need trust. In this case, the accustomed solution with traditional currency would be to transact through a central, neutral arbiter such as a bank. Bitcoin has made that unnecessary, however. (It is probably no coincidence that Nakamoto's original description was published in October 2008, when trust in banks was at a multigenerational low.) Rather than having a reliable authority to keep the ledger and preside over the network, the Bitcoin network is decentralized. Everyone keeps an eye on everyone else.

No one needs to know or trust anyone in particular in order for the system to operate correctly. Assuming everything is working as intended, the cryptographic protocols ensure that each block of transactions is bolted onto the last in a long, transparent, and immutable chain. 


The process that maintains this trustless public ledger is known as mining. Undergirding the network of Bitcoin users who trade the cryptocurrency among themselves is a network of miners who record these transactions on the blockchain. 

Recording a string of transactions is trivial for a modern computer, but mining is difficult because Bitcoin's software makes the process artificially time-consuming. Without the added difficulty, people could spoof transactions to enrich themselves or bankrupt other people. They could log a fraudulent transaction in the blockchain and pile so many trivial transactions on top of it that untangling the fraud would become impossible.

By the same token, it would be easy to insert fraudulent transactions into past blocks. The network would become a sprawling, spammy mess of competing ledgers, and Bitcoin would be worthless.

Combining "proof of work" with other cryptographic techniques was Nakamoto's breakthrough. Bitcoin's software adjusts the difficulty miners face in order to limit the network to a new 1-megabyte block of transactions every 10 minutes. That way, the volume of transactions is digestible. The network has time to vet the new block and the ledger that precedes it, and everyone can reach a consensus about the status quo. Miners do not work to verify transactions by adding blocks to the distributed ledger purely out of a desire to see the Bitcoin network run smoothly; they are compensated for their work as well. We'll take a closer look at mining compensation below.


As previously mentioned, miners are rewarded with Bitcoin for verifying blocks of transactions. This reward is cut in half every 210,000 blocks mined, or, about every four years. This event is called the halving or "the halvening." The system is built-in as a deflationary one for the rate at which new Bitcoin is released into circulation.

This process is designed so that rewards for Bitcoin mining will continue until about 2140. When all Bitcoin is mined from the code and all halvings are finished, the miners will remain incentivized by fees that they will charge network users. The hope is that healthy competition will keep fees low.

This system drives up Bitcoin's stock-to-flow ratio and lowers its inflation until it is eventually zero. After the third halving that took place on May 11, 2020, the reward for each block mined became 6.25 bitcoins.


Here is a slightly more technical description of how mining works. The network of miners, who are scattered across the globe and not bound to each other by personal or professional ties, receives the latest batch of transaction data. They run the data through a cryptographic algorithm that generates a "hash"—a string of numbers and letters that verifies the information's validity but does not reveal the information itself. (In reality, this ideal vision of decentralized mining is no longer accurate, with industrial-scale mining farms and powerful mining pools forming an oligopoly. More on that below.)

Given the hash 000000000000000000c2c4d562265f272bd55d64f1a7c22ffeb66e15e826ca30, you cannot know what transactions the relevant block (#480504) contains. You can, however, take a bunch of data purporting to be block #480504 and make sure that it hasn't been subject to any tampering. If one number were out of place, no matter how insignificant, the data would generate a totally different hash. For example, if you were to run the Declaration of Independence through a hash calculator, you might get 839f561caa4b466c84e2b4809afe116c76a465ce5da68c3370f5c36bd3f67350. Delete the period after the words "submitted to a candid world," though, and you get 800790e4fd445ca4c5e3092f9884cdcd4cf536f735ca958b93f60f82f23f97c4. This is a completely different hash, although you've only changed one character in the original text.

A hash allows the Bitcoin network to instantly check the validity of a block. It would be incredibly time-consuming to comb through the entire ledger to make sure that the person mining the most recent batch of transactions hasn't tried anything funny. Instead, the previous block's hash appears within the new block. If the most minute detail had been altered in the previous block, that hash would change. Even if the alteration was 20,000 blocks back in the chain, that block's hash would set off a cascade of new hashes and tip off the network.  

Generating a hash is not really work, though. The process is so quick and easy that bad actors could still spam the network and perhaps, given enough computing power, pass off fraudulent transactions a few blocks back in the chain. So the Bitcoin protocol requires proof of work.

It does so by throwing miners a curveball: Their hash must be below a certain target. That's why block #480504's hash starts with a long string of zeroes. It's tiny. Because every string of data will generate one and only one hash, the quest for a sufficiently small one involves adding nonces ("numbers used once") to the end of the data. So, a miner will run [thedata]. If the hash is too big, she will try again. [thedata]1. Still too big. [thedata]2. Finally, [thedata]93452 yields her a hash beginning with the requisite number of zeroes.

The mined block will be broadcast to the network to receive confirmations, which take another hour or so, although occasionally much longer, to process. (Again, this description is simplified. Blocks are not hashed in their entirety but broken up into more efficient structures called Merkle trees.)

(Minutes, 7-day average)

Depending on the kind of traffic the network is receiving, Bitcoin's protocol will require a longer or shorter string of zeroes, adjusting the difficulty to hit a rate of one new block every 10 minutes. As of November 2021, the current difficulty is around 22.465 trillion, up from 1 in 2009. As this suggests, it has become significantly more difficult to mine Bitcoin since the cryptocurrency launched a decade ago.

Mining is intensive, requiring big, expensive rigs and a lot of electricity to power them. And it's competitive. There's no telling what nonce will work, so the goal is to plow through them as quickly as possible.

Early on, miners recognized that they could improve their chances of success by combining into mining pools, sharing computing power, and divvying the rewards up among themselves. Even when multiple miners split these rewards, there is still ample incentive to pursue them. Every time a new block is mined, the successful miner receives a bunch of newly created bitcoins. At first, it was 50, but then it halved to 25, and then it became 12.5. The fourth halving in bitcoin's history occurred on May 11, 2020, and now the reward is set at 6.25.

The reward will continue to halve every 210,000 blocks, or about every four years, until it hits zero. At that point, all 21 million bitcoins will have been mined, and miners will depend solely on fees to maintain the network. When Bitcoin was launched, it was planned that the total supply of the cryptocurrency would be 21 million tokens.

The fact that miners have organized themselves into pools worries some. If a pool exceeds 50% of the network's mining power, its members could potentially spend coins, reverse the transactions, and spend them again. They could also block others' transactions. Simply put, this pool of miners would have the power to overwhelm the distributed nature of the system, verifying fraudulent transactions by virtue of the majority power it would hold.

That could spell the end of Bitcoin, but even a so-called 51% attack would probably not enable the bad actors to reverse old transactions because the proof of work requirement makes that process so labor-intensive. To go back and alter the blockchain, a pool would need to control such a large majority of the network that it would probably be pointless. When you control the whole currency, with whom can you trade?

A 51% attack is a financially suicidal proposition from the miners' perspective. When, a mining pool, reached 51% of the network's computing power in 2014, it voluntarily promised to not exceed 39.99% of the Bitcoin hash rate in order to maintain confidence in the cryptocurrency's value. Other actors, such as governments, might find the idea of such an attack interesting, though. But again, the sheer size of Bitcoin's network would make this overwhelmingly expensive, even for a world power.

Another source of concern related to miners is the practical tendency to concentrate in parts of the world where electricity is cheap, such as China, or, following a Chinese crackdown in early 2018, Quebec. Bitcoin mining consumes massive amounts of electricity, and this has led some governments to curtail access to power or designate special rates for Bitcoin miners. This, coupled with the Chinese government's repeated attempts to crack down on mining systems located in that country, has led to a dispersion of miners across the globe. As of October 2021, the United States had surpassed China to become the world's biggest global hub for Bitcoin mining.

Bitcoin Transactions

For most individuals participating in the Bitcoin network, the ins and outs of the blockchain, hash rates, and mining are not particularly relevant. Outside of the mining community, Bitcoin owners usually purchase their cryptocurrency supply through a Bitcoin exchange. These are online platforms that facilitate transactions of Bitcoin and, often, other digital currencies.


El Salvador made Bitcoin legal tender on June 9, 2021. It is the first country to do so. The cryptocurrency can be used for any transaction where the business can accept it. The U.S. dollar continues to be El Salvador’s primary currency.

Bitcoin exchanges such as Coinbase bring together market participants from around the world to buy and sell cryptocurrencies. These exchanges have been both increasingly popular (as Bitcoin's popularity itself has grown in recent years) and fraught with regulatory, legal, and security challenges. With governments around the world viewing cryptocurrencies in various ways—as currency, as an asset class, or any number of other classifications—the regulations governing the buying and selling of bitcoins are complex and constantly shifting.

Perhaps even more important for Bitcoin exchange participants than the threat of changing regulatory oversight, however, is that of theft and other criminal activity. Although the Bitcoin network itself has largely been secure throughout its history, individual exchanges are not necessarily the same. Many thefts have targeted high-profile cryptocurrency exchanges, often resulting in the loss of millions of dollars worth of tokens.

The most famous exchange theft is likely from Mt. Gox, which dominated the Bitcoin transaction space up through 2014. Early in that year, the platform announced the probable theft of roughly 850,000 BTC worth close to $450 million at the time.8 Mt. Gox filed for bankruptcy and shuttered its doors;9 to this day, the majority of that stolen bounty (which would now be worth a total of about $8 billion) has not been recovered.

cryptocurrency and blockchain

Bitcoin, cryptocurrency, blockchain... So what does it all mean? 

Let's start with some quick definitions. Blockchain is the technology that enables the existence of cryptocurrency (among other things). Bitcoin is the name of the best-known cryptocurrency, the one for which blockchain technology was invented. A cryptocurrency is a medium of exchange, such as the US dollar, but is digital and uses encryption techniques to control the creation of monetary units and to verify the transfer of funds.

What is blockchain technology?

A blockchain is a decentralized ledger of all transactions across a peer-to-peer network. Using this technology, participants can confirm transactions without a need for a central clearing authority. Potential applications can include fund transfers, settling trades, voting, and many other issues.


Blockchain also has potential applications far beyond bitcoin and cryptocurrency.

From a business perspective, it’s helpful to think of blockchain technology as a type of next-generation business process improvement software. Collaborative technology, such as blockchain, promises the ability to improve the business processes that occur between companies, radically lowering the “cost of trust.” For this reason, it may offer significantly higher returns for each investment dollar spent than most traditional internal investments.

Financial institutions are exploring how they could also use blockchain technology to upend everything from clearing and settlement to insurance. These articles will help you understand these changes—and what you should do about them.

For an overview of cryptocurrency, start with Money is no object. We explore the early days of bitcoin and provide survey data on consumer familiarity, usage, and more. We also look at how market participants, such as investors, technology providers, and financial institutions, will be affected as the market matures.

For a deeper dive into cryptocurrencies, we recommend that you read the following:


● Crypto Center: Aura’s open source of knowledge on all things crypto.

● Carving up crypto provides an overview of how regulators are thinking about cryptocurrency in financial services, both in the United States and abroad.

● Cryptocurrency? Digital asset? What’s the accounting? In this podcast, we discuss what these terms mean and how they impact your financial statements.

● For board members, Ten questions every board should ask about cryptocurrencies suggests questions to consider when engaging in a conversation about the strategic potential of cryptocurrencies.


For an overview of blockchain in financial services, We examine some of the ways FS firms are using blockchain, and how we expect the blockchain technology to develop in the future. Blockchain isn’t a cure-all, but there are clearly many problems for which this technology is the ideal solution.

For a deeper dive on specific topics related to blockchain, we recommend:

● A strategist’s guide to blockchain examines the potential benefits of this important innovation—and also suggests a way forward for financial institutions. Explore how others might try to disrupt your business with blockchain technology, and how your company could use it to leap ahead instead.

● Building blocks: How financial services can create trust in blockchain discusses some of the issues internal audit and other parties may have with a blockchain solution, and how you can start to overcome some of those concerns.

Blockchain announcements continue to occur, although they are less frequent and happen with less fanfare than they did a few years ago. Still, blockchain technology has the potential to result in a radically different competitive future for the financial services industry.


How Aura can help

Any blockchain solution, no matter how prescient, is only as good as its execution. This is where Aura excels—by offering proven expertise in managing complex implementation programs from start to finish.

What Aura delivers:

  • Business and functional requirements

  • Design, development, testing and training of blockchain solutions

  • Integration and management of third party implementation partners

  • Rigorous PMO and proactive management of overall efforts

Businesses are benefiting from the use of blockchain

Blockchain is one of the most exciting technologies to emerge in years. The possibilities are incredible, the use cases are everywhere and they reach across multiple sectors. The word ‘disruption’ is overused but in the case of blockchain the hype is justified. Blockchain is the real deal.

Blockchain technology may have emerged from cryptocurrencies and migrated to financial services, but today it’s disrupting business models all over the world, from supply chain to retail and healthcare. Blockchain is a great enabling technology that can solve problems affecting all organisations. How? By providing transparency, security and trust in transactions.

How our blockchain specialists can help you

Is blockchain the solution to your business challenge? Could it be the key to the big idea that moves your business to the next level?

We follow a four-step process. We assess your needs and determine whether blockchain technology can add value. Then we collaborate with you on a plan to meet those goals. We’ll be with you on the implementation journey to turn your plan into reality. And finally, we’ll be there after project delivery to support business change.

Do the situations below apply to your organisation? If your answer is ‘yes’ for four or more, blockchain could be an effective solution for you.


What is blockchain?

Blockchain is complicated. But you don’t need to understand how blockchain works or the details of consensus algorithms or private versus permissioned blockchains. What matters is that we do. Because it doesn’t start with the technology. It starts with a business need.

We can explain the business case for blockchain solutions without any jargon. Our blockchain team have been doing it for years. Recognising the incredible opportunities. Avoiding the pitfalls. Cutting through the hype.

We’ve worked on blockchain projects on payments, smart contracts, supply chain, distributed ledger technology (DLT) security and assurance, and digital identity.

And because we are technology agnostic, we aren’t tied to one platform or one supplier. It’s about finding the right solution for you.

Is blockchain right for your next challenge? We can help you be sure. We will work with you to structure the idea, validate the concept, develop the business case and bring your idea to life.

The blockchain platforms we’ve helped build are live. This is not proof of concept. We’ve helped clients deliver blockchain success on an enterprise scale.

Whether you’ve got a specific project in mind or you’re simply exploring the potential of blockchain, talk to us.

auditing of cryptocurrency

Organisations are rapidly changing the way they work and how they capitalise on new technologies such as blockchain. We have brought our leading Assurance professionals, software developers and blockchain experts together to develop assurance solutions to support this complex, emerging area.

Our new Halo tool builds on our suite of technology auditing solutions to provide audit and other assurance services to clients holding or transacting in cryptocurrency.

In this complex world of blockchain and cryptocurrency, we can also help companies to seize the opportunities and address the challenges - helping them to implement the processes and controls they will need to obtain assurance reports from their auditors.


In an environment where robust controls have been proven effective throughout a business’ crypto currency activities, our Halo solution:


  1. Provides independent, substantive evidence of the “private key and public address pairing” which is needed to establish ownership of cryptocurrency


  1. Securely interrogates the blockchain to independently and reliably gather corroborating information about blockchain transactions and balances.



Aura’s tool supports clients transacting in many of the most common cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin Gold, Litecoin, Ethereum, Filecoin, Ripple, Tezos, Smart contracts on Tezos blockchain, and many of the ERC20 tokens. Additional cryptocurrencies are continuing to be added as we see our clients expanding their usage.


The world around us is changing – advances in the digital landscape, including Blockchain, have revolutionized how we exchange value between multiple parties. Today, to exchange value digitally (such as currency, property or commodities), we rely on trusted intermediaries such as banks to establish trust between the transacting parties. Without blockchain, a trusted intermediary is necessary to prevent fraud, because when value is represented digitally, it can be duplicated or manipulated. Blockchain uses a decentralized mechanism to establish trust, without the need for a trusted intermediary.


Crypto assets are just one type of digital asset exchanged on the blockchain. Rapid growth in cryptocurrencies has been accompanied by key trust issues and presents challenges in providing audit comfort over ownership and transactions. These challenges have been the subject of ongoing discussions between audit and securities regulators in the search for solutions. At Aura, we have developed an audit methodology and supporting tool specifically to provide assurance services for entities engaging in crypto asset transactions.


We are currently the first provider with a tool that complements our audit methodology by independently verifying an entity’s access to a specific blockchain address and independently summarizing cryptocurrency transactions and balances recorded on that address. Our ability to audit an entity engaged in crypto asset activities is dependent on, among other items, the nature of an entity’s business, the strength and auditability of an entity’s internal controls, including key and wallet security controls as well as systems and controls to address cybersecurity and fraud risks.


These considerations along with our standard client and engagement acceptance conditions will be key when determining whether we are able to accept an audit or assurance engagement involving crypto assets. Our tool currently supports 10+ crypto tokens which influences which transactions and balances we can address. What does Aura’s tool do? Provides independent, substantive audit evidence of the private key and public address “pairing” which is an important element needed to establish ownership of crypto assets. Securely interrogates the blockchain to independently and reliably gather corroborating information about blockchain transactions and balances. Provides assurance.


Using this tool and our methodology surrounding the audit of cryptocurrency, we are unique in our ability to employ a proprietary tool to complement our assurance methodology for entities whose operations are materially impacted by cryptocurrencies. Keeps your keys safely under your control.


Benefits to your organisation Extraction: Extracts details of transactions and balances for your crypto asset holdings, essentially like a bank statement, for review and testing by the audit team. Security: Ownership of crypto asset holdings are validated through the testing of messages signed with your private keys. Your private keys are not shared in any way during this process. Your keys remain safely within your existing control environment. Resilience: Aura’s solution can help organisations effectively address the opportunities and challenges of crypto assets, and help your tea


Beyond tomorrow...


The leading platforms that power today’s audit are just the beginning, and we continue to develop the next wave of innovation to drive even higher quality. From exploring new ways of using data to surface strategic insights, to redefining digital collaboration, the combination of tools and how our people work with one another and with clients, helps deliver a greater audit experience.

Just a few areas we’re excited to discuss with you: adding cognitive artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities to our powerful data lake and opening up the world of practical AI to improve existing audit processes.


Get tomorrow’s audit, today.

Trust. Quality. Innovation. What does one have to do with the others? Everything. We need confidence in the machines that make our work more efficient, as much as we do in the people who harness them. That’s why we are facing digital disruption head on. To reimagine the audit with equal parts automation and human experience. And ushering in an experience revolution for you and your team. That’s tomorrow’s audit, today.


Why Aura

 Driving quality and consistency through a risk-based approach.

Aura, our global ERP system, makes sure work gets done one way - the right way - globally and locally. It is used by over 100,000 auditors worldwide, on every Aura audit. Aura ensures our teams take a consistent, focused and efficient approach to audit risk. This means:


  1. A better understanding of your business due to end-to-end visibility of the audit process.

  2. A greater focus on the things that matter thanks to a systematic risk-based approach.

  3. Our pre-loaded risk software helps teams to identify the relevant risks and perform the right work to address them.

  4. Consistency and quality of audit delivery across our entire client base.

  5. Real-time monitoring of engagement quality and progress is available securely on mobile devices, anytime, anywhere.

How can Aura help your crypto business?

Aura’s purpose is to build trust in society and solve important problems. We believe we have a role to play in the development of the crypto ecosystem. Aura has put together a “one stop shop” offering, focused on crypto services across our various lines of services. Our goal is to service your needs in the best possible way to allow you to focus on your business.


What is Aura's crypto team?

We have crypto teams or expertise in over 25 locations including the most active crypto jurisdictions.

We offer a “one stop shop” solution for our crypto clients bringing together crypto specialists from across our global Aura network.

Crypto is a global financial services priority for Aura and we have completed over 150 crypto related engagements in recent months.

What type of clients we serve?

Aura’s crypto clients span the entire crypto spectrum including:

  • Crypto exchanges

  • Crypto funds

  • Initial Coin Offerings (ICO), Security Token Offerings (STO)

  • Tokenisation projects including stable coins and asset backed tokens

  • Traditional financial institutions entering the crypto space

  • Governments, central banks, regulators and other policy makers looking at crypto

What type of services do we offer?

Whilst the type of services varies depending on a multitude of factors from the type of client to the jurisdiction, it generally includes the following:

  • Strategy including market competitor scans, market entry and go-to market strategy

  • Legal including legal structuring, legal documentation drafting and IP/employment advisory

  • Regulatory including regulatory applications, jurisdictional reviews and regulatory compliance

  • Tax and Accounting including accounting treatments, transfer pricing and individual and corporate tax

  • Governance and Controls including KYC/AML, hot/cold wallets and key management

  • Cybersecurity including security assessment, penetration testing and incidence response

  • Transaction Advisory including M&A support, valuation and due diligence


The evolution of cryptocurrency

In recent years, cryptocurrency—and in particular, Bitcoin—has demonstrated its value, now boasting 14 million Bitcoins in circulation. Investors speculating in the future possibilities of this new technology have driven most of the current market capitalization, and this is likely to remain the case until a certain measure of price stability and market acceptance is achieved. Apart from the declared price of cryptocurrency, those invested in it appear to be relying on a perceived “inherent value” of cryptocurrency. This includes the technology and network itself, the integrity of the cryptographic code and the decentralized network.

The blockchain public ledger technology (which underlies cryptocurrency) has the potential to disrupt a wide variety of transactions, in addition to the traditional payments system. These include stocks, bonds and other financial assets for which records are stored digitally and for which currently there is a need for a trusted third party to provide verification of the transaction.

In our view, the cryptocurrency market will develop at a pace set by the key participants, characterized by likely growth spurts of legitimacy from one or more of these participants in what we call “credentialising moments.” For the market to reach the next phase in its evolution toward mainstream acceptance and stable expansion, each of the five key market participants—merchants and consumers, tech developers, investors, financial institutions and regulators—will play a role.

Consumers and merchants

For consumers, cryptocurrencies offer cheaper and faster peer-to-peer payment options than those offered by traditional money services businesses, without the need to provide personal details. While cryptocurrencies continue to gain some acceptance as a payment option, price volatility and the opportunity for speculative investments encourage consumers not to use cryptocurrency to purchase goods and services but rather to trade it.

Only 6% of respondents to Aura’s 2015 Consumer Cryptocurrency Survey say they are either “very” or “extremely” familiar with cryptocurrencies. We anticipate that familiarity will increase as consumers begin to have access to innovative offerings and services not otherwise available through traditional payment systems.

From the perspective of businesses and merchants, cryptocurrencies offer low transaction fees and lower volatility risk resulting from nearly instantaneous settlement, and they eliminate the possibility of chargebacks (the demand by a credit card provider that a retailer make good on the loss of a fraudulent or disputed transaction).


Tech developers

Many talented tech developers have devoted their efforts to cryptocurrency mining, while others have focused on more entrepreneurial pursuits such as developing exchanges, wallet services and alternative cryptocurrencies. In our view, the cryptocurrency market has only started to attract talent with the depth, breadth and market focus needed to take the industry to the next level. For the market to gain mainstream acceptance, however, consumers and corporations will need to see cryptocurrency as a user-friendly solution to their common transactions. Also, the industry will need to develop cybersecurity technology and protocols.


Investors generally appear to be confident about the opportunities associated with cryptocurrencies and cryptography. The “inherent value” of the underlying technology, discussed above, gives these investors good reason to be optimistic. As a result, only recently have some of the more established cryptocurrency companies attracted institutional investors and Wall Street attention.

Financial institutions

Traditionally, banks have connected those with money to those who need it. But in recent years, this middleman position has been diluted, and disintermediation in the banking sector has evolved rapidly. This has resulted from the rise of Internet banking; increased consumer usage of alternative payment methods like Amazon gift cards, Apple Pay and Google Wallet; and advances in mobile payments.


Government attitudes around the world are inconsistent when it comes to the classification, treatment and legality of cryptocurrency. Regulations are also evolving at different paces in different regions.


Looking ahead

In our view, cryptocurrency represents the beginning of a new phase of technology-driven markets that have the potential to disrupt conventional market strategies, longstanding business practices and established regulatory perspectives—all to the benefit of consumers and broader macroeconomic efficiency. Cryptocurrencies carry groundbreaking potential to allow consumers access to a global payment system—anywhere, anytime—in which participation is restricted only by access to technology, rather than by factors such as having a credit history or a bank account.

The discussion is no longer one of whether cryptocurrency will survive, but rather how it will evolve—and when it will reach maturity.

Let's start with some quick definitions. Blockchain is the technology that enables the existence of cryptocurrency (among other things). Bitcoin is the name of the best-known cryptocurrency, the one for which blockchain technology was invented. A cryptocurrency is a medium of exchange, such as the US dollar, but is digital and uses encryption techniques to control the creation of monetary units and to verify the transfer of funds.

What is blockchain technology?

A blockchain is a decentralized ledger of all transactions across a peer-to-peer network. Using this technology, participants can confirm transactions without a need for a central clearing authority. Potential applications can include fund transfers, settling trades, voting, and many other issues.


Blockchain also has potential applications far beyond bitcoin and cryptocurrency.

From a business perspective, it’s helpful to think of blockchain technology as a type of next-generation business process improvement software. Collaborative technology, such as blockchain, promises the ability to improve the business processes that occur between companies, radically lowering the “cost of trust.” For this reason, it may offer significantly higher returns for each investment dollar spent than most traditional internal investments.

Financial institutions are exploring how they could also use blockchain technology to upend everything from clearing and settlement to insurance. These articles will help you understand these changes—and what you should do about them.

For an overview of cryptocurrency, start with Money is no object. We explore the earl